Long-term cost-effectiveness analysis of nebivolol compared with standard care in elderly patients with heart failure: an individual patient-based simulation model

Pharmacoeconomics. 2008;26(10):879-89. doi: 10.2165/00019053-200826100-00007.


Background and objective: The SENIORS trial demonstrated that nebivolol is effective in the treatment of heart failure in elderly patients (e.g. > or = 70 years). This analysis evaluates the cost effectiveness of nebivolol compared with standard treatment.

Methods: An individual patient-simulation model based on a Markov modelling framework was developed to compare costs and outcomes for nebivolol and standard care in patients with heart failure starting treatment at the age of 70 years. Health states were defined by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and death. At a given NYHA class and a given cycle, patients could die, be hospitalized for cardiovascular disease or remain stable. Risks for these events were derived from individual patient data from the SENIORS trial. The risk of each event in a given cycle was based on the subject's baseline characteristics and time in the current health state. The economic analysis was conducted from the UK NHS perspective with a lifetime horizon. The costs (euro; year 2006 values) considered were drug costs for nebivolol and other cardiac drugs, costs of GP visits, outpatient specialist visits and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted.

Results: In the baseline analysis, the total cost per patient was euro6740 and euro9288, and QALYs were 5.194 and 5.843 for patients aged 70 years at the start of treatment for the standard treatment and nebivolol groups, respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis provided an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of euro3926 (95% CI 3731, 4159) per QALY.

Conclusions: This analysis indicates that nebivolol appears to be a cost-effective treatment for elderly patients with heart failure compared with standard care.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / economics
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Benzopyrans / economics
  • Benzopyrans / therapeutic use*
  • Computer Simulation
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Ethanolamines / economics
  • Ethanolamines / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy*
  • Heart Failure / economics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Markov Chains
  • Models, Economic*
  • Nebivolol
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • United Kingdom


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Benzopyrans
  • Ethanolamines
  • Nebivolol