Leishmania infection may be associated with immunecomplex-mediated glomerular injury. Contrary to immune-competent individuals, leishmaniasis in HIV patients is a chronic, relapsing disease. Despite the increasing frequency of the Leishmania/ HIV co-infection, there is a paucity of information on the effects of such co-infection in the kidney. We present a patient with AIDS and refractory, relapsing visceral leishmaniasis who developed nephrotic syndrome associated with renal involvement by Leishmania in the absence of immunecomplex glomerular deposition. For the first time, the relapsing nature of renal injury in this context is documented.