Cutaneous manifestations of human toxocariasis

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 Dec;59(6):1031-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.06.031. Epub 2008 Sep 14.


Human toxocariasis is a parasitic disease characterized by the presence of larvae of the genus Toxocara in human tissues. T canis and T cati, the adult roundworms of which are found in dog and cat intestines, respectively, are the most common causative agents of the disease. Toxocaral larvae usually cause two severe syndromes: visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans, depending on the location of the larvae. Two other syndromes, covert toxocariasis and common toxocariasis, which are less typical and not as severe, have also been described. During the last two decades, cutaneous manifestations such as chronic urticaria, chronic pruritus, and miscellaneous eczema, in patients with Toxocara antibodies, have been studied by different authors. In some cases, these cutaneous manifestations are the only signs indicating the presence of the disease, and they are cured after antihelmintic treatment when there is good patient compliance. In this review, we focus on these particular skin manifestations regarding their clinical description, diagnosis, and treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dogs
  • Eczema / diagnosis
  • Eczema / parasitology
  • Humans
  • Pruritus / diagnosis
  • Pruritus / parasitology
  • Skin Diseases, Parasitic / diagnosis*
  • Toxocara / immunology
  • Toxocariasis / diagnosis
  • Toxocariasis / immunology
  • Toxocariasis / pathology*
  • Urticaria / diagnosis
  • Urticaria / parasitology