Perceived control moderated the self-efficacy-enhancing effects of a chronic illness self-management intervention

Chronic Illn. 2008 Sep;4(3):173-82. doi: 10.1177/1742395308089057.


Objective: Identifying moderators of the effects of self-efficacy-enhancing interventions could improve their efficiency. We examined the effects of a home-based variant of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program on self-efficacy, and explored the moderating effects of perceived control over self-management (PCSM).

Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, patients (N= 415) aged>40 years with various chronic conditions plus basic activity impairment and/or significant depressive symptoms were randomized to one of three groups: intervention provided in homes or by telephone, v. usual care control. We used mixed effects linear models for repeated measures to examine effects on self-management self-efficacy at 6-month follow-up and explore moderation by PCSM.

Results: Only the home intervention had a significant self-efficacy-enhancing effect (Wald test, chi( 2) = 13.8, p = 0.008; effect size = 0.3). The effect was moderated by PCSM, considered as a continuous [effective in subjects with lower PCSM (Wald test, chi(2) = 13.4, p = 0.009)] or categorical (effective only for subjects in the lowest tercile) variable.

Conclusions: People with lower PCSM appear more likely to experience enhanced self-efficacy from chronic illness self-management training than those with higher PCSM. These findings, although preliminary, suggest that office-based measurement of PCSM might identify those chronically ill patients likely to benefit most from self-management training.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chronic Disease / psychology*
  • Chronic Disease / therapy*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Home Care Services*
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Self Care / methods*
  • Self Care / psychology
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Self-Assessment*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome