Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of acute and chronic morbidity in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world. The availability of safe, single-dose, drug treatment regimens capable of suppressing microfilaremia to very low levels, along with improvements in techniques for diagnosing infection, has resulted in the targeting of this major mosquito-borne disease for global elimination. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000 with the principal objective of breaking the cycles of transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia spp. through the application of annual mass drug administrations (MDAs) to entire at-risk populations. Although significant progress in initiating MDA programs in endemic countries has been made, emerging challenges to this approach have raised questions regarding the effectiveness of using MDA alone to eliminate LF without the inclusion of supplementary vector control. Here, we review advances in knowledge of vector ecology, vector-parasite relationships, and both empirical and theoretical evidence regarding vector management to assess the feasibility and strategic value of including vector control in the GPELF initiative to achieve the global elimination of LF.