Objective: Takayasu Arteritis (TA) is a rare disease that mainly affects large elastic arteries. It is more frequently seen in Asia, the Mediterranean basin, South Africa and Latin America. We have characterized its clinical manifestations and identified the cardiovascular mortality predictors in a cohort of 110 Mexican Mestizo patients.
Material and method: Retrospective review of 110 charts of TA patients complying with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, seen in a single hospital between 1976 and 2003. Demographic, clinical, and radiological characteristics were described. With the use of actuarial table analysis at 2, 5, and 10 years, and Kaplan Meier methods applying t function for probability, plus Cox regression analysis, the following factors were identified as mortality predictors: systemic arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease and aortic valve regurgitation. Informed consent and approval from the institutional Internal Review Board (IRB) were obtained.
Results: We observed a slowly progressive widespread obstructive arterial disease with cardiovascular (48%), neuro-ophthalmic (36%), and skin morbidity (13%). Systemic hypertension and heart disease were significant mortality predictors. Twenty-six percent of cases died due to myocardial infarction, chronic renal failure, stroke, or surgical complications.
Conclusion: TA in Mexican Mestizos shows a clinical pattern similar to the one recognized in the Far East. Management strategies must be directed at reducing the identified mortality risk factors.