In regulated vesicle exocytosis, SNARE protein complexes drive membrane fusion to connect the vesicle lumen with the extracellular space. The triggering of fusion pore formation by Ca(2+) is mediated by specific isoforms of synaptotagmin (Syt), which employ both SNARE complex and membrane binding. Ca(2+) also promotes fusion pore expansion and Syts have been implicated in this process but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We determined the role of Ca(2+)-dependent Syt-effector interactions in fusion pore expansion by expressing Syt-1 mutants selectively altered in Ca(2+)-dependent SNARE binding or in Ca(2+)-dependent membrane insertion in PC12 cells that lack vesicle Syts. The release of different-sized fluorescent peptide-EGFP vesicle cargo or the vesicle capture of different-sized external fluorescent probes was used to assess the extent of fusion pore dilation. We found that PC12 cells expressing partial loss-of-function Syt-1 mutants impaired in Ca(2+)-dependent SNARE binding exhibited reduced fusion pore opening probabilities and reduced fusion pore expansion. Cells with gain-of-function Syt-1 mutants for Ca(2+)-dependent membrane insertion exhibited normal fusion pore opening probabilities but the fusion pores dilated extensively. The results indicate that Syt-1 uses both Ca(2+)-dependent membrane insertion and SNARE binding to drive fusion pore expansion.