Multi-photon microscopy, along with advances in other imaging modalities, allows investigators the opportunity to study dynamic events within the functioning kidney. These emerging technologies enable investigators to follow complex heterogeneous processes in organs such as the kidney with improved spatial and temporal resolution, and sensitivity. Furthermore, the ability to obtain volumetric data (3-D) makes quantitative 4-D (time) analysis possible. Finally, use of up to three fluorophores concurrently in multi-photon microscopy allows for three different or interactive processes to be observed simultaneously. Therefore, this approach complements existing molecular, biochemical, pharmacologic and radiologic techniques by advancing data analysis and interpretation to subcellular levels for molecules without the requirement for fixation. Its use in acute kidney injury is in its infancy but offers much promise for unraveling the complex interdependent processes known to contribute to cell injury and organ failure. Also, recent advances in other imaging techniques offer potential clinical diagnostic tools to study acute kidney injury in animal models and in patients.
Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.