Universal newborn screening for selected metabolic, endocrine, hematologic, and functional disorders is a well-established practice of state public health programs. Recent developments in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is now capable of multi-analyte analysis in a high throughput capacity, has enabled newborn screening to include many more disorders detectable from a newborn blood spot. In 2006, to address the substantial variation that existed from state to state in the number of disorders included in newborn screening panels, the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG), under guidance from the Health Resources and Services Administration, recommended a uniform panel of 29 disorders, which was subsequently endorsed by the federal Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. After 2006, most states began to expand their panels to include all 29 disorders; currently, 21 states and the District of Columbia have fully implemented the ACMG panel. To estimate the burden to state newborn screening programs resulting from this expansion, CDC used 2001-2006 data from those states with well-established MS/MS screening programs to estimate the number of children in the United States who would have been identified with disorders in 2006 if all 50 states and the District of Columbia had been using the ACMG panel. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, although such an expansion would have increased the number of children identified by only 32% (from 4,370 to 6,439), these children would have had many rare disorders that require local or regional capacity to deliver expertise in screening, diagnosis, and management. The findings underscore the need for public health and health-care delivery systems to build or expand the programs required to manage the rare disorders detected through expanded newborn screening, while also continuing programs to address more common disorders.