Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major cause of respiratory but rarely systemic infection. The host defence to this bacterium has not been well defined in patients with chronic airway infection. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of humoral immunity in host defence to NTHi. Responses were measured in control and bronchiectasis subjects who had recurrent bronchial infection. Antibody and complement-mediated killing was assessed by incubating NTHi with serum and the role of the membrane-attack complex and classical/alternate pathways of complement activation measured. The effect of one strain to induce protective immunity against other strains was assessed. The effect of antibody on granulocyte intracellular killing of NTHi was also measured. The results showed that both healthy control subjects and bronchiectasis patients all had detectable antibody to NTHi of similar titre. Both groups demonstrated effective antibody/complement-mediated killing of different strains of NTHi. This killing was mediated through the membrane-attack complex and the classical pathway of complement activation. Immunization of rabbits with one strain of NTHi resulted in protection from other strains in vitro. Antibody activated granulocytes to kill intracellular bacteria. These findings may explain why NTHi rarely causes systemic disease in patients with chronic respiratory mucosal infection and emphasize the potential importance of cellular immunity against this bacterium.