Some actions of insulin are mediated by inositolphosphoglycan (IPG) mediators. Deficient release of a putative D-chiro-inositol-containing (DCI) IPG mediator may contribute to insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Previously, we demonstrated that oral DCI supplementation improved ovulation and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. However, whether oral DCI mediates an increase in the release of the DCI-IPG mediator and an improvement in insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS is unknown. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of DCI supplementation vs placebo in 11 women with PCOS who were assessed at 2 time points 6 weeks apart. Plasma DCI, DCI-IPG release during oral glucose tolerance test (AUC(DCI-IPG)), and insulin sensitivity (S(i)) by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test were assessed at baseline and end of study. The study was terminated early because of a sudden unavailability of the study drug. However, in all subjects without regard to treatment assignment, there was a positive correlation between the change in AUC(DCI-IPG)/AUC(insulin) ratio and the change in S(i) during the 6-week period (r = 0.69, P = .02), which remained significant after adjustment for body mass index (P = .022) and after further adjustment for body mass index and treatment allocation (P = .0261). This suggests that, in women with PCOS, increased glucose-stimulated DCI-IPG release is significantly correlated with improved insulin sensitivity. The significant relationship between DCI-IPG release and insulin sensitivity suggests that the DCI-IPG mediator may be a target for therapeutic interventions in PCOS.