Significant amount of data have accumulated in the last several years pointing to the essential role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription; however, its involvement in RNA polymerase I transcription has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that proteasome activity is required for pre-rRNA synthesis. We can detect the association of proteasomal ATPases with both the rDNA promoter and coding region. Additionally, we show that the RNA polymerase I associated transcription factor, TIF-IA interacts with proteasomal ATPases, representing a potential link via which proteasomes and/or proteasome related complexes are recruited to rRNA genes. In summary, our findings suggest that the ubiquitin proteasome system is directly involved in RNA polymerase I transcription in analogy to the RNA polymerase II system.