Inconsistent differences in the corpus callosum (CC) structure between dyslexic readers (DRs) and typical readers (TRs) have been reported. We examine differences in CC splenium microstructure and the association of splenium microstructure with reading-related skills. Nine DRs and 18 TRs completed a reading skills battery and diffusion tensor imaging. DRs had higher splenium fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity (LA) as compared with TRs. Retrieval of orthographic information from the language lexicon was negatively associated with FA and LA within both reading groups. Phonological awareness was positively associated with splenium FA and LA in TRs but not DRs. This study suggests two white matter pathways that may be differentially associated with reading skills in the CC splenium.