We describe here two systems for encoding foreign amino acid sequences in the exposed N-terminal segment of the major coat protein of bacteriophage fd. Small peptides can be encoded directly; larger peptides are encoded in hybrid bacteriophage particles, in which the capsid is formed from a mixture of wild-type and modified coat proteins. In both cases, the peptides are present in multiple copies per phage particle. Peptides that represent the circumsporozoite protein, the major surface antigen of the sporozoites of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were inserted in this way and found to be highly immunogenic. These systems should prove to be valuable in displaying specific or random peptides as antigens, and could lead to cheap and effective vaccines. They will also allow rapid screening of peptides as potential agents of other biological effects, with important applications in biomolecular design.