The genome of Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain 2.4.1 encodes functional cobinamide salvaging systems of archaeal and bacterial origins

Mol Microbiol. 2008 Nov;70(4):824-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06437.x. Epub 2008 Sep 18.


Bacteria and archaea use distinct pathways for salvaging exogenous cobinamide (Cbi), a precursor of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B(12)). The bacterial pathway depends on a bifunctional enzyme with kinase and guanylyltransferase activities (CobP in aerobic adenosylcobalamin synthesizers) to convert adenosylcobinamide (AdoCbi) to AdoCbi-guanosine diphosphate (AdoCbi-GDP) via an AdoCbi-phosphate intermediate. Archaea lack CobP, and use a different strategy for the synthesis of AdoCbi-GDP. Archaea cleave off the aminopropanol group of AdoCbi using the CbiZ AdoCbi amidohydrolase to generate adenosylcobyric acid, which is converted to AdoCbi-phosphate by the CbiB synthetase, and to AdoCbi-GDP by the CobY guanylyltransferase. We report phylogenetic, in vivo and in vitro evidence that the genome of Rhodobacter sphaeroides encodes functional enzymes for Cbi salvaging systems of both bacterial and archaeal origins. Products of the reactions were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, UV-visible spectroscopy and bioassay. The cbiZ genes of several bacteria and archaea restored Cbi salvaging in a strain of Salmonella enterica unable to salvage Cbi. Phylogenetic data led us to conclude that CbiZ is an enzyme of archaeal origin that was horizontally transferred to bacteria. Reasons why some bacteria may contain both types of Cbi salvaging systems are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Amidohydrolases / genetics
  • Amidohydrolases / metabolism*
  • Archaea / enzymology
  • Archaea / genetics
  • Archaeal Proteins / genetics
  • Archaeal Proteins / metabolism
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Cobamides / metabolism*
  • Genes, Archaeal
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Genome, Bacterial*
  • Phylogeny
  • Plasmids
  • Rhodobacter sphaeroides / enzymology
  • Rhodobacter sphaeroides / genetics*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / enzymology
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics


  • Archaeal Proteins
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Cobamides
  • cobinamide
  • Amidohydrolases