HPV Vaccines: today and in the Future

J Adolesc Health. 2008 Oct;43(4 Suppl):S26-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.07.010.


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 99.7% of cervical cancer cases and an estimated 5% of all cancers worldwide. The largest burden from HPV-associated cervical cancers is in developing nations where effective cervical cancer screening programs are nonexistent. Even in developed nations, diagnosis and treatment of cervical precancers continue to be large economic burdens. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an ideal method for the prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV associated diseases. Safe and effective virus-like-particle-derived prophylactic vaccines are available to most nations. The high cost of the current vaccines makes it out of reach for most developing nations. Because millions of women are already infected with HPV and have serious disease, therapeutic HPV vaccines are being developed to treat these women. This article presents the natural history, oncogenesis, and host immune interactions of HPV and associated diseases. The article also discusses the safety and efficacy of commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV, as well as novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine delivery strategies in early clinical development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Developing Countries
  • Female
  • Forecasting
  • Human papillomavirus 16 / immunology
  • Human papillomavirus 18 / immunology
  • Humans
  • Papillomavirus Infections / immunology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / economics
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / immunology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • Vaccination / trends


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines