Symbiosis between microorganisms from kombucha and kefir: Potential significance to the enhancement of kombucha function

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010 Jan;160(2):446-55. doi: 10.1007/s12010-008-8361-6. Epub 2008 Sep 23.


Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 (G. sp. A4), which had strong ability to produce d-saccharic acid 1, 4 lactone (DSL), was the key functional bacteria isolated from the kombucha preserved. This paper investigated the interaction between G. sp. A4 and ten different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) obtained from kefir. The result suggested that the LAB promoted DSL production of G. sp. A4 to different extents, ranging from 4.86% to 86.70%. Symbiosis between G. sp. A4 and LAB was studied. LAB's metabolites, xylitol, and acetic acid, were utilized by G. sp. A4, and it promoted the growth of G. sp. A4 and yield of DSL. Therefore, in developing starter cultures for kombucha fermentation process, a mixed flora of LAB and G. sp. A4 would be the optimal combination.

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / growth & development
  • Bacteria / metabolism
  • Bacterial Physiological Phenomena*
  • Beverages / microbiology*
  • Cultured Milk Products / microbiology*
  • Fermentation*
  • Gluconacetobacter / growth & development
  • Gluconacetobacter / physiology*
  • Lactic Acid / metabolism
  • Lactones / metabolism


  • Lactones
  • Lactic Acid