Affinity modification of E. coli DNA polymerase I and its Klenow fragment by imidazolides of dNMP (Im-dNMP) and dNTP was studied. DNA polymerase activity of DNA polymerase I was reduced by both Im-dNMP and Im-dNTP. However Im-dNTP does not inactivate of the Klenow fragment. The level of covalent labelling of both enzymes by radioactive Im-dNTP did not exceed 0.01 mol of reagent per mol of enzyme. But the deep inactivation of DNA polymerase I by Im-dNTP was observed. It is likely that this inactivation is due to the formation of intramolecular ether followed by phosphorylation of the carboxyl group. This assumption is strongly supported by the increase of the isoelectrical point of DNA polymerase I after its incubation with Im-dNTP in conditions of enzyme inactivation. All data permit us to suggest that the affinity modification of both enzymes by Im-dNMP and covalent labeling by Im-dNTP takes place without complementary binding of dNTP moiety with the template. However inactivation of DNA polymerase I by Im-dNTP occurs only if the dNTP-moiety is complementary to the template in the template.primer complex. It was shown that His residue was phosphorylated by Im-dNMP and Tyr or Ser residues between Met-802 and Met-848 were phosphorylated by Im-dNTP. We suppose that there are two states of DNA polymerase active site for the binding of dNTPs. One of them is independent on the template, in the other state the dNTP hydrogen bond with the template is formed.