Dietary vitamin E (VE) is known to regulate gene expression by altering mRNA concentrations. Recently, microRNA (miRNA) have been discovered as a means of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Since the effect of VE on miRNA regulation is unknown, we fed rats for 6 months diets deficient or sufficient in VE and determined hepatic concentrations of miRNA involved in processes previously associated with VE (lipid metabolism, miRNA-122a; cancer and inflammation, miRNA-125b). VE-deficiency resulted in reduced concentrations of miRNA-122a and miRNA-125b. The findings of the present study demonstrate that differences in dietary VE may affect hepatic miRNA concentrations in vivo.