Effectiveness, safety, and acceptability of cryotherapy by midwives for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Maharashtra, India

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008 Dec;103(3):232-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.07.016. Epub 2008 Sep 24.


Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and acceptability of cryotherapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) when provided by trained midwives in rural India.

Method: Women with colposcopic findings of CIN lesions suitable for ablative treatment received cryotherapy from trained midwives before the biopsy results were known. Cure rates, adverse effects, and complications were assessed and factors influencing cure rates were evaluated by chi(2) tests. Cure was defined as no clinical or histologic evidence of CIN lesions 6 or more months after treatment.

Results: Of 1068 women treated with cryotherapy, 728 had histologically proven CIN in their pretreatment biopsy specimens; of the 574 reporting for follow-up, 538 (93.7%) were cured (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.1%-96.3%). Cure rates were 96.4% (95% CI, 94.6%-98.1%) for CIN 1 and 82.1% (95% CI, 74.7%-89.4%) for CIN 2 and CIN 3 lesions combined. Minor adverse effects were documented in 5.2% of the women.

Conclusion: Cryotherapy provided by midwives was found to be safe, effective, and acceptable by the women.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy*
  • Cryotherapy / adverse effects
  • Cryotherapy / methods*
  • Cryotherapy / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India
  • Mass Screening
  • Middle Aged
  • Midwifery
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy*