The most popular method of GBS identification in Poland currently is by culturing on enriched agar and verifying the Lancefield Group using special latex agglutination kits. However, the classical methods are time-consuming and their sensitivity is insufficient therefore it is becoming more common to try and apply molecular methods which are characterized by high sensitivity and rapid results. Moreover, molecular methods give us the possibility to carry out epidemiological investigations and gene detection, for instance for antibiotic resistance. It was confirmed that PCR and FISH procedures may be effective in rapid detection of GBS. Thanks to RAPD methods we showed that newborns born to colonized mothers were colonized by GBS strains which originated from the mother, irrespective of the way and the course of labour. Additionally, we detected GBS colonization in children who were born to mothers who were not colonized by GBS. These children were probably colonized with strains coming from hospital environment. More studies are needed to elucidate the route of transmission and the role of colonization of the medical staff. Using multiplex PCR we showed the presence of ermA, ermB and ermC genes in phenotypically confirmed MLS, GBS strains.