Milia: a review and classification

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 Dec;59(6):1050-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.07.034. Epub 2008 Sep 25.


Milia are frequently encountered as a primary or secondary patient concern in pediatric and adult clinics, and in general or surgical dermatology practice. Nevertheless, there are few studies on the origin of milia and, to our knowledge, there is no previous comprehensive review of the subject. We review the various forms of milia, highlighting rare variants including genodermatosis-associated milia, and present an updated classification.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Epidermal Cyst / classification*
  • Epidermal Cyst / congenital
  • Epidermal Cyst / pathology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Orofaciodigital Syndromes / classification
  • Orofaciodigital Syndromes / pathology
  • Pachyonychia Congenita / classification
  • Pachyonychia Congenita / pathology
  • Skin Diseases / classification*
  • Skin Diseases / pathology