Hyperbilirubinemia may accompany harmful effects such as jaundice, brain dysfunction, and pharmacokinetic alterations of drugs. Clinical drugs are the important causes of hyperbilirubinemia, especially for patients with certain pathologic conditions or with genetic variations. This article reviews hyperbilirubinemic pathophysiology with respect to the effects of clinical drugs. In addition, this review introduces a new formula that may be utilized to estimate the annual occurrences of drug-induced hyperbilirubinemia in a hospital. Variations in the genes of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, organic anion-transporting polypeptides and multidrug resistance proteins are the predisposing factors for drug-induced hyperbilirubinemia; therefore, their genetic and ethnic polymorphisms are discussed.