Cross-linking methods of electrospun fibrinogen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

Biomed Mater. 2008 Dec;3(4):045001. doi: 10.1088/1748-6041/3/4/045001. Epub 2008 Sep 25.


The purpose of this study was to enhance the mechanical properties and slow the degradation of an electrospun fibrinogen scaffold, while maintaining the scaffold's high level of bioactivity. Three different cross-linkers were used to achieve this goal: glutaraldehyde vapour, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) in ethanol and genipin in ethanol. Scaffolds with a fibrinogen concentration of 120 mg ml(-1) were electrospun and cross-linked with one of the aforementioned cross-linkers. Mechanical properties were determined through uniaxial tensile testing performed on scaffolds incubated under standard culture conditions for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days. Cross-linked scaffolds were seeded with human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ-GFP-hTERT) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days, with histology and scanning electron microscopy performed upon completion of the time course. Mechanical testing revealed significantly increased peak stress and modulus values for the EDC and genipin cross-linked scaffolds, with significantly slowed degradation. However, cross-linking with EDC and genipin was shown to have some negative effect on the bioactivity of the scaffolds as cell migration throughout the thickness of the scaffold was slowed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry
  • Carbodiimides / chemistry
  • Cattle
  • Cell Movement
  • Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry
  • Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology*
  • Electrochemistry / methods
  • Fibrinogen / chemistry
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Glutaral / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Iridoid Glycosides
  • Iridoids / chemistry
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning / methods
  • Tensile Strength
  • Tissue Engineering / instrumentation*
  • Tissue Engineering / methods


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Carbodiimides
  • Cross-Linking Reagents
  • Iridoid Glycosides
  • Iridoids
  • Fibrinogen
  • genipin
  • Glutaral