Several studies have yielded conflicting results regarding morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients. We performed a retrospective analysis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in our department, who were equally distributed between HD and PD, in order to compare 5-year survival probabilities and hospitalization rates in the two modalities. Of the total 94 new ESRD patients who initiated dialysis in our department from January 1995 to December 2000, 48 were allocated to PD and 46 to HD. All patients were followed up for five years. There were no significant differences regarding demographics and serious co-morbidities upon dialysis initiation between HD and PD patients. Unadjusted 5-year survival probability in as-treated analysis was higher in PD patients (0.79 vs 0.6, p=0.04), whereas there was no significant difference in intent-to-treat analysis between HD and PD patients (p=0.5). Hospitalization rates were similar in both modalities. Despite the small number of patients included in our study, it seems that when HD and PD are both available in one department they have equivalent results regarding morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore we suggest that, when possible, PD and HD should be equally offered to all ESRD patients.