High-relaxivity MRI contrast agents: where coordination chemistry meets medical imaging

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47(45):8568-80. doi: 10.1002/anie.200800212.


The desire to improve and expand the scope of clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has prompted the search for contrast agents of higher efficiency. The development of better agents requires consideration of the fundamental coordination chemistry of the gadolinium(III) ion and the parameters that affect its efficacy as a proton relaxation agent. In optimizing each parameter, other practical issues, such as solubility and in vivo toxicity, must also be addressed, making the attainment of safe, high-relaxivity agents a challenging goal. This Minireview presents recent advances in the field, with an emphasis on gadolinium(III) hydroxypyridinone chelate complexes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chelating Agents / chemical synthesis
  • Chelating Agents / chemistry*
  • Contrast Media / chemical synthesis
  • Contrast Media / chemistry*
  • Diagnostic Imaging*
  • Gadolinium / chemistry*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Organometallic Compounds / chemical synthesis
  • Organometallic Compounds / chemistry*
  • Pyridones / chemistry*


  • Chelating Agents
  • Contrast Media
  • Organometallic Compounds
  • Pyridones
  • Gadolinium