In the present study we investigated the potential role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms as risk factors in the development of gastric cancer. TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were investigated in 171 Italian patients with sporadic gastric cancer and in 151 controls. Unconditional regression (odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals) were used to investigate the association of the studied polymorphisms with gastric cancer. TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphism is linked with an increased susceptibility to gastric cancer (P = 0.023 and hazard ratio = 3.62). No significant association for TLR-4 Asp299Gly polymorphism was found. In the subgroup of patients with intestinal-type gastric cancer, a significant risk of gastric cancer was associated with TLR-4 Thr399Ile genotype (P = 0.006). Our results demonstrated that TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphism is linked with an increased susceptibility to gastric cancer. An increased risk for intestinal gastric cancer in carriers of the TLR4 Thr399Ile allele was observed. Future epidemiological studies should consider the possible interactions between proinflammatory genotypes (such as TLR and interleukin-1R polymorphisms) and other risk factors for cancer such as dietary habits and/or exposure to environmental carcinogens.