Risk factors for Nipah virus encephalitis in Bangladesh

Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Oct;14(10):1526-32. doi: 10.3201/eid1410.060507.


Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus that causes severe encephalitis in humans. During January 2004, twelve patients with NiV encephalitis (NiVE) were identified in west-central Bangladesh. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with NiV infection. NiVE patients from the outbreak were enrolled in a matched case-control study. Exact odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using a matched analysis. Climbing trees (83% of cases vs. 51% of controls, OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.25-infinity) and contact with another NiVE patient (67% of cases vs. 9% of controls, OR 21.4, 95% CI 2.78-966.1) were associated with infection. We did not identify an increased risk for NiV infection among persons who had contact with a potential intermediate host. Although we cannot rule out person-to-person transmission, case-patients were likely infected from contact with fruit bats or their secretions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Bangladesh / epidemiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chiroptera / virology
  • Disease Vectors
  • Encephalitis, Viral / epidemiology
  • Encephalitis, Viral / etiology*
  • Encephalitis, Viral / transmission
  • Female
  • Henipavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Henipavirus Infections / etiology*
  • Henipavirus Infections / transmission
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nipah Virus*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors