Safety and efficacy of an ocular insert for apomorphine-induced emesis in dogs

Am J Vet Res. 2008 Oct;69(10):1360-5. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.69.10.1360.


Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an ocular insert designed to provide controlled release of apomorphine for the induction of emesis in dogs.

Animals: 5,001 dogs treated with ocular apomorphine inserts and 32 dogs treated with IV administration of apomorphine.

Procedures: Data collected on a case report form included breed, body weight, time to emesis after placement of the insert, and any information available regarding the nature of the toxicosis and clinical signs. A list of potential adverse effects was provided, and attending clinicians graded their occurrence by use of a subjective scale. Similar report forms were used for dogs that received apomorphine IV. Treatment was considered successful if emesis occurred within 15 minutes of administration. Safety was assessed by evaluation of the frequency and severity of adverse effects.

Results: For the ocular insert and IV injection groups, the success rates were 83.5% and 90.6% respectively, and were not significantly different. Adverse effects were more frequent in the IV group, whereas ocular irritation was most frequent in the insert group.

Conclusions and clinical relevance: Overall, the ocular inserts provided an alternative to parenteral administration of apomorphine with comparable efficacy and a lower prevalence of adverse effects.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antitoxins / administration & dosage
  • Apomorphine / administration & dosage
  • Apomorphine / adverse effects*
  • Dog Diseases / chemically induced
  • Dogs
  • Drug Implants / administration & dosage*
  • Eye
  • Ophthalmic Solutions / administration & dosage
  • Ophthalmic Solutions / adverse effects
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Safety
  • Self Efficacy
  • Vomiting / chemically induced*
  • Vomiting / veterinary


  • Antitoxins
  • Drug Implants
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Apomorphine