Vitamin K2 has been approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan since 1995. Vitamin K2 treatment in osteoporosis has been shown to inhibit the occurrence of new bone fractures and to maintain BMD. The uniqueness of the prevention of bone fractures by vitamin K2 is that there has been no direct evidence of the relationship between increase of BMD and a decrease in the occurrence of bone fractures. A recent systematic review of seven Japanese randomized controlled trials by Cockayne has also shown that supplementation with phytonadione (Vitamin K1) and menaquinone (Vitamin K2) , particularly menaquinone-4, is associated with increased BMD and reduced fracture incidence. To confirm these results, a larger well design RCT using fractures as the primary endpoint is clearly needed.