With the exception of the X chromosome, genomic deletions appear to be more prevalent than duplications. Because of a lack of accurate diagnostic methods, submicroscopic duplications have been under-ascertained for a long period. The development of array CGH has enabled the detection of chromosomal microduplications with nearly the same sensitivity as deletions, leading to the discovery of previously unrecognized syndromes. Using a clinical targeted oligonucleotide array (CMA-V6.3 OLIGO), we identified an approximately 360-kb duplication in 9q22.32 in a 21-month-old boy with developmental delay, failure to thrive, and microcephaly. The same duplication was identified in the patient's mother who is also microcephalic and mildly delayed. We have sequenced the chromosomal breakpoints and determined the duplication as tandem in orientation and 363 599 bp in size. The duplicated segment harbors the entire PTCH1 gene. Deletions or loss-of-function mutations of PTCH1 result in basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), whereas gain-of-function mutations were proposed to lead to holoprosencephaly 7. We propose that patients with microcephaly or holoprosencephaly of unknown origin should also be screened for PTCH1 duplication.