Introducing secure modes of operation for optical encryption

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2008 Oct;25(10):2608-17. doi: 10.1364/josaa.25.002608.


We analyze optical encryption systems using the techniques of conventional cryptography. All conventional block encryption algorithms are vulnerable to attack, and often they employ secure modes of operation as one way to increase security. We introduce the concept of conventional secure modes to optical encryption and analyze the results in the context of known conventional and optical attacks. We consider only the optical system "double random phase encoding," which forms the basis for a large number of optical encryption, watermarking, and multiplexing systems. We consider all attacks proposed to date in one particular scenario. We analyze only the mathematical algorithms themselves and do not consider the additional security that arises from employing these algorithms in physical optical systems.