The effect of universal maternal screening on the incidence of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal disease

Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2009 May;48(4):369-75. doi: 10.1177/0009922808325455. Epub 2008 Oct 2.

Abstract

Objective: To determine the effect of the revised guidelines on incidence of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal disease (EoGBS) via retrospective analysis of births in a military population.

Methods: Information from records of all live births within military hospitals from 1993 to 2007 was obtained. The data were divided into three time frames, representing the evolution of identifying and managing at-risk deliveries for GBS transmission. Incidence of EoGBS decreased from 1.95 to 0.72 per 1000 live births following institution of the 1996 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations and continued to fall to 0.47 per 1000 since the adoption of universal screening in 2002.

Conclusions: Universal culture-based screening is more effective than risk-based screening in preventing EoGBS in term infants. Cases of EoGBS continue to occur, however, at a baseline rate of nearly 0.5 per 1000 births, thus emphasizing the need for rapid diagnostics and ultimately a vaccine.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis
  • Carrier State / drug therapy
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Newborn, Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Infant, Newborn, Diseases / microbiology
  • Infant, Newborn, Diseases / prevention & control
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / statistics & numerical data*
  • Mass Screening / statistics & numerical data*
  • Mothers / statistics & numerical data
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / microbiology
  • Prenatal Care / methods
  • Prenatal Care / standards
  • Program Evaluation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Streptococcal Infections / epidemiology*
  • Streptococcal Infections / microbiology
  • Streptococcal Infections / transmission*
  • Streptococcus agalactiae*
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents