Purpose of review: As male genital corrective surgery is becoming increasingly requested by patients, the need to reach a general consensus on indications and techniques is now imperative. This review of published data provides an overview concerning patient selection modalities, benefits/risks and expected outcomes of surgery. Finally, the article focuses on ethical issues caused by the growing aesthetic nature of this surgery.
Recent findings: Interest has been sparked by animal studies, the description of innovative techniques for lengthening and girth enhancement techniques, reconstructive phalloplasty and penile implant surgery. Data suggest that better objective surgical outcomes are possible, though in many cases long-term data and patient-rated satisfaction details are lacking. Most importantly, studies show the importance of having a multidisciplinary team in charge of patient selection.
Summary: Although more long-term data are required before a general consensus can be reached, recent findings point to the absolute need for a thorough psychological assessment of men requesting penile enhancement surgery. Urologists should work in very close collaboration with psychologists or psychosexologists both during the preoperative phase (to verify eligibility for surgery) and afterwards (to provide counselling).