The development of posttraumatic stress disorder following four different types of traumatization

Behav Res Ther. 1991;29(3):213-6. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(91)90110-o.


The Children's Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory (CPTSDI) was used to identify 230 childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) cases. Of these cases, 58 had been traumatized through direct experience, 128 through observation, 13 through verbal mediation, and 31 by combinations thereof. The 230 children and 35 controls completed the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). In addition, their conduct was rated on the Connor's Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS) criteria. Each of the PTSD groups had significantly greater RCMAS, CDI, and CTRS scores than the non-clinical controls, but there were no differences between the four types of PTSD cases.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lebanon
  • Male
  • Personality Inventory
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Environment
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / diagnosis
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / psychology*
  • Warfare*