CAP18 is a novel 18 kDa cationic protein [pI approximately 10] originally purified from rabbit granulocytes using as an assay the agglutination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) coated erythrocytes. cDNA clones encoding CAP18 were isolated from a rabbit bone marrow cDNA library using a PCR generated oligonucleotide probe derived from the N-terminal amino acid sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals a putative signal sequence of 29 amino acids and a mature protein of 142 amino acid residues. The predicted size of the encoded protein is 16.6 kDa with a pI of 10. There are no N-linked glycosylation sites. The CAP18 sequence bears no homology with other known LPS-binding proteins including human bacterial permeability increasing protein (BPI)(1) and rabbit LPS binding protein (LBP)(2).