Engagement of TLR signaling as adjuvant: towards smarter vaccine and beyond

Vaccine. 2008 Dec 9;26(52):6777-83. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.09.045. Epub 2008 Oct 7.


Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of conserved pattern recognition receptors that recognizes specific microbial patterns and allow the cell to distinguish between self and non-self materials. The very property of the TLRs to link innate and adaptive immunity offers a novel prospect to develop vaccines engaging TLR signaling. The presence of TLR ligands as adjuvant in conjunction with the vaccine is shown to increase the efficacy and response to the immunization with a particular antigen. For infectious as well as for noninfectious diseases, TLR activation have been used in both established and experimental vaccines. The choice of the TLR agonist to be used, the subsequent efficacy and the safety profile of the vaccine is thus a crucial step in vaccine development. Recent studies also suggest the involvement of other non-TLR immune receptors to control vaccine immunogenicity. Here we focus on the findings dealing with TLR ligands as adjuvant and discuss the importance of these studies to develop an optimal vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / drug effects
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Memory / genetics
  • Immunologic Memory / physiology
  • Phagocytosis / immunology
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / agonists*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*
  • Vaccines / pharmacology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Vaccines