International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008

Diabetes Care. 2008 Dec;31(12):2281-3. doi: 10.2337/dc08-1239. Epub 2008 Oct 3.


Objective: To systematically tabulate published and unpublished sources of reliable glycemic index (GI) values.

Research design and methods: A literature search identified 205 articles published between 1981 and 2007. Unpublished data were also included where the data quality could be verified. The data were separated into two lists: the first representing more precise data derived from testing healthy subjects and the second primarily from individuals with impaired glucose metabolism.

Results: The tables, which are available in the online-only appendix, list the GI of over 2,480 individual food items. Dairy products, legumes, and fruits were found to have a low GI. Breads, breakfast cereals, and rice, including whole grain, were available in both high and low GI versions. The correlation coefficient for 20 staple foods tested in both healthy and diabetic subjects was r = 0.94 (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: These tables improve the quality and quantity of GI data available for research and clinical practice.

MeSH terms

  • Diet, Diabetic / standards
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / standards*
  • Food / classification*
  • Glycemic Index*
  • Humans
  • Reference Standards


  • Dietary Carbohydrates