Objective: Type 2 diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Aside from hyperglycemia and hypertension, other metabolic factors may determine renal outcome. We examined risk associations of metabolic syndrome with new onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 5,829 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled between 1995 and 2005.
Research design and methods: Metabolic syndrome was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria with the Asian definition of obesity. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula modified for the Chinese population. New onset of CKD was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at the time of censor. Subjects with CKD at baseline were excluded from the analysis.
Results: After a median follow-up duration of 4.6 years (interquartile range: 1.9-7.3 years), 741 patients developed CKD. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of CKD was 1.31 (95% CI 1.12-1.54, P = 0.001) for subjects with metabolic syndrome compared with those without metabolic syndrome. Relative to subjects with no other components of metabolic syndrome except for diabetes, those with two, three, four, and five metabolic syndrome components had HRs of an increased risk of CKD of 1.15 (0.83-1.60, P = 0.407) 1.32 (0.94-1.86, P = 0.112), 1.64 (1.17-2.32, P = 0.004), and 2.34 (1.54-3.54, P < 0.001), respectively. The metabolic syndrome traits of central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and low BMI were independent predictors for CKD.
Conclusions: The presence of metabolic syndrome independently predicts the development of CKD in subjects with type 2 diabetes.