TRIM family proteins and their emerging roles in innate immunity

Nat Rev Immunol. 2008 Nov;8(11):849-60. doi: 10.1038/nri2413.


The superfamily of tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins is conserved throughout the metazoan kingdom and has expanded rapidly during vertebrate evolution; there are now more than 60 TRIM proteins known in humans and mice. Many TRIM proteins are induced by type I and type II interferons, which are crucial for many aspects of resistance to pathogens, and several are known to be required for the restriction of infection by lentiviruses. In this Review, we describe recent data that reveal broader antiviral and antimicrobial activities of TRIM proteins and discuss their involvement in the regulation of pathogen-recognition and transcriptional pathways in host defence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology*
  • Membrane Proteins / immunology*


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Membrane Proteins
  • TRIM protein, human
  • TRIM protein, mouse