Antigen-nonspecific activation of CD8+ T lymphocytes by cytokines: relevance to immunity, autoimmunity, and cancer

Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2008 Sep-Oct;56(5):311-23. doi: 10.1007/s00005-008-0033-2.


Development of T lymphocytes and their survival in the periphery are dependent on signals emanating from cytokine receptors as well as the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). These two signaling pathways play distinct and complementary roles at various stages of T cell development, maturation, survival, activation and differentiation. During immune response to foreign antigens initiated by TCR signaling, cytokines play a key role in the expansion of activated T cells. Even though the initial activation of T cells occurs via the TCR, this requirement can be overcome under certain circumstances. During lymphopenia, cytokines trigger memory CD8(+) T cells to undergo antigen non-specific homeostatic expansion, whereas naïve CD8(+) T cells require both cytokines and TCR signaling. Recent reports show certain combinations of cytokines can induce proliferation and effector functions of naïve CD8(+) T cells without concomitant stimulation via the TCR. While such antigen non-specific stimulation of naïve T cells might significantly boost the adaptive immune response, it could also have an undesirable effect of triggering potentially autoreactive cells. Understanding the mechanisms and the regulation of cytokine-driven stimulation of naïve CD8(+) T cells may lead to novel strategies of intervention for autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, in vitro expansion of naïve CD8(+) T cells by certain combinations of cytokines could be used to generate tumor-specific cells with ideal properties for cellular immunotherapy of cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adoptive Transfer
  • Animals
  • Autoimmunity*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cytokines / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / therapy
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology
  • Signal Transduction


  • Cytokines
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell