Four grams of glucose

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan;296(1):E11-21. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.90563.2008. Epub 2008 Oct 7.


Four grams of glucose circulates in the blood of a person weighing 70 kg. This glucose is critical for normal function in many cell types. In accordance with the importance of these 4 g of glucose, a sophisticated control system is in place to maintain blood glucose constant. Our focus has been on the mechanisms by which the flux of glucose from liver to blood and from blood to skeletal muscle is regulated. The body has a remarkable capacity to satisfy the nutritional need for glucose, while still maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. The essential role of glucagon and insulin and the importance of distributed control of glucose fluxes are highlighted in this review. With regard to the latter, studies are presented that show how regulation of muscle glucose uptake is regulated by glucose delivery to muscle, glucose transport into muscle, and glucose phosphorylation within muscle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative / blood
  • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative / metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative