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. 2008 Oct 8;300(14):1665-73.
doi: 10.1001/jama.300.14.1665.

Associations Between End-Of-Life Discussions, Patient Mental Health, Medical Care Near Death, and Caregiver Bereavement Adjustment

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Associations Between End-Of-Life Discussions, Patient Mental Health, Medical Care Near Death, and Caregiver Bereavement Adjustment

Alexi A Wright et al. JAMA. .
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Abstract

Context: Talking about death can be difficult. Without evidence that end-of-life discussions improve patient outcomes, physicians must balance their desire to honor patient autonomy against a concern of inflicting psychological harm.

Objective: To determine whether end-of-life discussions with physicians are associated with fewer aggressive interventions.

Design, setting, and participants: A US multisite, prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients with advanced cancer and their informal caregivers (n = 332 dyads), September 2002-February 2008. Patients were followed up from enrollment to death, a median of 4.4 months later. Bereaved caregivers' psychiatric illness and quality of life was assessed a median of 6.5 months later.

Main outcome measures: Aggressive medical care (eg, ventilation, resuscitation) and hospice in the final week of life. Secondary outcomes included patients' mental health and caregivers' bereavement adjustment.

Results: One hundred twenty-three of 332 (37.0%) patients reported having end-of-life discussions before baseline. Such discussions were not associated with higher rates of major depressive disorder (8.3% vs 5.8%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-3.32), or more worry (mean McGill score, 6.5 vs 7.0; P = .19). After propensity-score weighted adjustment, end-of-life discussions were associated with lower rates of ventilation (1.6% vs 11.0%; adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.83), resuscitation (0.8% vs 6.7%; adjusted OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.80), ICU admission (4.1% vs 12.4%; adjusted OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.90), and earlier hospice enrollment (65.6% vs 44.5%; adjusted OR, 1.65;95% CI, 1.04-2.63). In adjusted analyses, more aggressive medical care was associated with worse patient quality of life (6.4 vs 4.6; F = 3.61, P = .01) and higher risk of major depressive disorder in bereaved caregivers (adjusted OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.12-10.13), whereas longer hospice stays were associated with better patient quality of life (mean score, 5.6 vs 6.9; F = 3.70, P = .01). Better patient quality of life was associated with better caregiver quality of life at follow-up (beta = .20; P = .001).

Conclusions: End-of-life discussions are associated with less aggressive medical care near death and earlier hospice referrals. Aggressive care is associated with worse patient quality of life and worse bereavement adjustment.

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Figure 1
Figure 1
Results adjusted for illness severity, as measured by Karnofsky score and survival. Hospice length: 0=no hospice, 1=less than one week, 2=one to eight weeks, 3=more than eight weeks (F=4.04, df=3, p=0.008). Aggressive interventions: 0=none, 1=one intervention (ventilation, resuscitation, chemotherapy, or feeding tube), 2=two interventions, 3=three or more (F=3.61, df=3, p=0.01).

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