Background: Most knowledge about adverse health effects of trans fats was mainly derived from studies done in Western populations of European or American origins; few data are available in the understudied region of the Middle East.
Objective: We assessed the association between consumption of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) and non-HVOs and circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers among Tehrani women aged 40-60 y.
Design: Usual dietary intakes were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire among 486 apparently healthy women. PHVOs (commonly used for cooking in Iran) were considered as PHVOs category. Sunflower oil, corn oil, canola oil, soybean oil, and olive oil were defined as non-HVOs. Anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken to measure inflammatory markers.
Results: The energy-adjusted daily intakes (mean +/- SD) of PHVOs and non-HVOs were 23 +/- 11 and 22 +/- 10 g/d, respectively. After control for potential confounders, women in the highest quintile of PHVO intake had higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP; percentage difference from lowest quintile: 45%; P for trend: <0.01), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 66%; P for trend: <0.01), interleukin-6 (72%; P for trend: <0.05), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1; 22%; P for trend: <0.01) than did women in the lowest quintile. In contrast, higher consumption of non-HVOs was associated with lower circulating concentrations of CRP (percentage difference between top and bottom quintiles: -23%; P for trend: 0.05), TNF-alpha (-29%; P for trend: <0.01), serum amyloid A (-24%; P for trend: <0.01), and sICAM-1 (-19%; P for trend:<0.05). Adjustment for body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profiles slightly attenuated the associations in some cases.
Conclusions: Higher intakes of PHVOs are associated with elevated concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, whereas higher intakes of non-HVOs are associated with lower plasma concentrations of these biomarkers.