The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Taiwan. In this 12-month multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 125 women with osteoporosis were randomly given either strontium ranelate 2 g daily or placebo. Lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total-hip bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured; adverse events and tolerability were recorded and assessed. Subjects treated with strontium ranelate showed significant increases in BMD of 5.9% at the lumbar spine, 2.6% at the femoral neck, and 2.7% at the total hip, while the placebo group exhibited no significant change at 12 months. Serum level of a formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) was also significantly increased at 6 and 12 months. Thus, although the sample size and the treatment duration of this study could not show its effect of reducing osteoprotic fractures, strontium ranelate showed bone protection effects by increasing BMD and concentrations of a bone formation marker. Safety assessment revealed adverse events were mild and not significantly different from placebo.