Head trauma requires several different neuroimaging modalities for adequate evaluation and determination of treatment. This article considers the importance of anatomical and functional imaging modalities in the initial evaluation, treatment planning, and long-term management of patients with head injury. These modalities include computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography. Each modality offers specific advantages and potential disadvantages. However, it is important to understand the capabilities of each modality, and how and when each one might provide the most valuable information as one evaluates such patients.