p16INK4a-induced senescence is disabled by melanoma-associated mutations

Aging Cell. 2008 Oct;7(5):733-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2008.00422.x.


The p16(INK4a)-Rb tumour suppressor pathway is required for the initiation and maintenance of cellular senescence, a state of permanent growth arrest that acts as a natural barrier against cancer progression. Senescence can be overcome if the pathway is not fully engaged, and this may occur when p16(INK4a) is inactivated. p16(INK4a) is frequently altered in human cancer and germline mutations affecting p16(INK4a) have been linked to melanoma susceptibility. To characterize the functions of melanoma-associated p16(INK4a) mutations, in terms of promoting proliferative arrest and initiating senescence, we utilized an inducible expression system in a melanoma cell model. We show that wild-type p16(INK4a) promotes rapid cell cycle arrest that leads to a senescence programme characterized by the appearance of chromatin foci, activation of acidic beta-galactosidase activity, p53 independence and Rb dependence. Accumulation of wild-type p16(INK4a) also promoted cell enlargement and extensive vacuolization independent of Rb status. In contrast, the highly penetrant p16(INK4a) variants, R24P and A36P failed to arrest cell proliferation and did not initiate senescence. We also show that overexpression of CDK4, or its homologue CDK6, but not the downstream kinase, CDK2, inhibited the ability of wild-type p16(INK4a) to promote cell cycle arrest and senescence. Our data provide the first evidence that p16(INK4a) can initiate a CDK4/6-dependent autonomous senescence programme that is disabled by inherited melanoma-associated mutations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cellular Senescence / genetics*
  • Cellular Senescence / physiology
  • Clone Cells
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 / genetics
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 / physiology
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 / genetics
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 / physiology
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Melanoma / enzymology
  • Melanoma / genetics*
  • Melanoma / pathology*
  • Mutation*


  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • CDK4 protein, human
  • CDK6 protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6

Associated data

  • RefSeq/NM_000321