Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in Hispanic adolescents

J Adolesc Health. 2008 Nov;43(5):444-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.03.010. Epub 2008 Jun 16.

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the associations of overweight with risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Hispanic adolescents.

Methods: A total of 100 adolescents (50 overweight, 50 nonoverweight) aged 12 to 16 years were included. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin sensitivity (IS), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG), LDL, HDL, and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated as risk factors for T2DM and CVD. IS was determined using the HOMA calculator. Abnormal levels were: FPG >or=100 and <126 mg/dL (impaired fasting glucose [IFG]), IS <100%, TC >or=200 mg/dL, TG >or=130 mg/dL, LDL >or=130 mg/dL, HDL <35 mg/dL, and BP >or=95th percentile. MetS was defined as having equal to or more than three of the following: abdominal obesity (waist-to-height ratio >0.5), high BP, high TG, low HDL, and IFG.

Results: Overweight adolescents had higher TC, TG, and LDL, and lower IS, ps < .001. They were more likely to have abnormal levels of IS, TG, and LDL, one and two or more risk factors compared to having zero, and two or more risk factors compared to having one, ps < .05. Only 9% of adolescents met the criteria of MetS, and they were all overweight. Abdominal obesity (51%), low HDL (21%), and high TG (16%) were the most predominant components of the MetS.

Conclusions: Overweight Hispanic adolescents are at increased risk of developing T2DM or CVD. Preventive programs targeting Hispanic adolescents are needed to manage the overweight epidemic and its consequences.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / ethnology
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Female
  • Florida
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Overweight / complications
  • Risk Factors