QT intervals were measured over RR intervals ranging from 500 ms to 1000 ms in 13 normal male subjects, 13 male diabetic subjects without and 13 with autonomic neuropathy. There was a close linear relationship between QT and RR in all subjects. The slope of the regression line was significantly greater in the autonomic neuropathy group than the normal group. Thirty-two male diabetic subjects with varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction had repeat QT measurements 3 (range 2-6) years later. QT and QTC lengthened significantly at the second visit, unrelated to age or time between recordings, but which corresponded with changes in autonomic function. Of 71 male diabetic subjects under 60 years followed for 3 years, 13 had died, 8 unexpectedly. Of those with autonomic neuropathy. QT and QTC were significantly longer in those who subsequently died, despite similar ages and duration of diabetes. We conclude that QT/RR interval relationships are altered in diabetic autonomic neuropathy, and that changes in QT length with time parallel changes in autonomic function. There may be an association between QT interval prolongation and the risk of dying unexpectedly in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.