Background: Smoking cessation after myocardial infarction (MI) is an important goal for secondary prevention of mortality. Whether new initiatives to promote cessation improve patients' quit rates after MI is unknown.
Methods: The Prospective Registry Evaluating Outcomes After Myocardial Infarction Events and Recovery (PREMIER) enrolled 2498 patients with MI from 19 US centers between January 2003 and June 2004. Smoking behavior was assessed by self-report during hospitalization and 6 months after an MI. Extensive sociodemographic, comorbidity, psychosocial, disease severity, and treatment data were collected by interview and medical record abstraction. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models with random site effects were constructed to predict smoking cessation 6 months after admission, with a focus on the presence of an inpatient smoking cessation program as a hospital-level covariate.
Results: Among 834 patients who smoked at the time of MI hospitalization, 639 were interviewed and reported their smoking habits 6 months post-MI (77%). Of these, 297 were not smoking at 6 months (46%). The odds of smoking cessation were greater among those receiving discharge recommendations for cardiac rehabilitation (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.75) and being treated at a facility that offered an inpatient smoking cessation program (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.03-2.83). However, medical chart-based individual smoking cessation counseling did not predict smoking cessation rates (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.51-1.25). Patients with depressive symptoms during the MI hospitalization were less likely to quit smoking (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.90).
Conclusions: While individual smoking cessation counseling was not associated with smoking cessation post-MI, hospital-based smoking cessation programs, as well as referral to cardiac rehabilitation, were strongly associated with increased smoking cessation rates. Such programs appear to be underutilized in current clinical practice and may be a valuable structural measure of health care quality. Moreover, smoking cessation programs should likely incorporate screening for and treating depressive disorders.